W. T. Waggoner Estate

Oil Production History Slide Show


Geologic Horizons & Their Productive History
On the Waggoner Ranch
Wichita & Wilbarger Counties, Texas
Thomas, J. Todd, W.T. Waggoner Estate, Vernon, Texas

The Waggoner Ranch is located within one of the most productive regions of North Central Texas. The area adjacent to the Red River Carbonate Platform has proved to be a vital source of relatively shallow oil production since the turn of the century. The Waggoner Ranch has seen both major and independent oil companies drill and produce more than 200 million barrels of oil from the sandstone and carbonate reservoirs under it's properties. The active leases on the ranch continue to produce 40,000 to 50,000 barrels of oil each month. In this talk I want to show the productive trends within several geologic intervals and report on their productive histories.

The geologic formations from which this crude has been produced ranges from Permian to Ordovician in age and from the approximate depths of 80 to 5200 feet respectively. The Waggoner Ranch, which covers over 1000 square miles of North Central Texas, has been penetrated with over 10,000 wells drilled for oil and gas production. Virtually all of the production has been located within the assemblage of rocks associated with the Red River Carbonate Platform in Wichita and Wilbarger counties.

The majority of wells drilled have been less than 2,500 feet deep but, usually encounter multiple pay horizons. When mapping the different pay zones geologist sometimes just named them relative to their depth (ex. the 900 foot sand). Several of the named pay horizons within this shallow interval are the Thomas, Gunsight, Dyson and Milham sandstones. A number of thinner limestone formations, usually only used as markers (Megargel, Gunsight and Milham) are locally productive. These sand and lime formations appear to represent alternating episodes of transgression and regression of the paleoshoreline.

The "deeper" carbonate rocks contributing to the production within the Ranch area are the Canyon (Landreth), Strawn (Lido & KMA), Caddo and Ellenburger formations. Production from these carbonate formations is generally associated with structures where porosity development has been preserved within the top of the interval. There are several unique instances where porosity developed lower in the Canyon or Caddo sections has proven productive.

The Waggoner Ranch has seen the exploration and development activities on it's properties track the cyclical nature of the oil industry. Throughout this time oil has continued to be a valuable commodity to the Ranch along with it's other resources such as cattle and wheat.

List of Figures (Click on thumbnail to see larger picture).

01. Surface Geologic Map (Bureau of Economic Geology - 1987)

Surface Geological Map of the Waggoner Ranch Area – Geologic Atlas of Texas (Wichita Falls-Lawton sheet), Bureau of Economic Geology published in 1987. We digitized the geological units within the ranch boundaries. Note: Progressively younger rocks are exposed as you move from SE to NW.

Ranch Roundary Map  02. Ranch Boundary Map

Waggoner Ranch Base Map – See Vernon & Electra, highways 287, 183-283, & 277
See the block & section grid for scaling.

  03. Study Area Map

Study Area Map – See Oklaunion, Harrold, & Electra along State Highway 287. State Highway 183-283 divides the Waggoner Ranch in half, east - west. Production is presently limited to the northeast of the Waggoner Ranch in Wichita & Wilbarger counties.
Note: All the following maps are from this area of the Waggoner Ranch

  04. North - South Geologic Cross-Section

Geologic cross-section – Note the depositional environments active during each geologic time period. The Electra / Matador Arch has been the location for a stable carbonate platform through most of this time period. Carbonates, alluvial deposits, near-shore (beaches & sandbars) and offshore deposits (fans and deltas) all occur in this region

  05. Cisco Depositional Model & Setting

Cisco Stratigraphy or Lithology – Depositional environments with an abundance of terrigenous (land derived) material is most common within these formations. A beach type environment with long shore currents and a source of sediment from the North and Northeast along the Wichita Mountain uplift. The fluvial & deltaic formations have been the main targets when developing crude oil production in the region. These excellent reservoirs have responded well to water flooding operations through the years.

  06. Canyon Depositional Model & Setting

Canyon Stratigraphy or Lithology - Depositional environments with carbonates dominating the area. The Canyon carbonates accumulated along the Electra Arch can exceed 900 feet in thickness. This limestone interval has very little shale on the main structures, while massive shale wedges accumulate off the features both north and south.

  07. Strawn Depositional Model & Setting

Strawn Stratigraphy or Lithology - Carbonate depositional environments with once again the area during this time period. It appears that at times the carbonates may be overwhelmed by terrigenous material dumping into the area from the Wichita Mountains.

  8. Ordovician Depositional Model & Setting

Ordovician Stratigraphy or Lithology - Depositional environments with less terrigenous material. The reservoirs in this interval have generally been structurally positive features that have porosity preserved in the upper section of dolomite. The reservoirs have a strong water drive.

  09. Coleman Junction Structure Map

Coleman Junction Structure – approximately 1100’ of structural relief on this horizon. (2900 points)
The Coleman Junction generally serves as the shallowest marker bed that is used to correlate and map the area

  10. Canyon Structure Map

Canyon Structure – There is approximately 2400’ of structural relief on this horizon. (1700 points)
The Canyon Reef is the first "thick" limestone that develops within the Waggoner Ranch area along the Electra Arch. The Canyon formation is a prolific producing horizon on several major structural features along the Red River – Matador Arch.

  11. Caddo Structure Map

Caddo Structure – There is approximately 2800’ of structural relief on this horizon. (583 points)
The Strawn and Caddo horizons have been the most heavily drilled and produce deeper horizon on the Waggoner Ranch.

  12. Ellenburger Structure Map

Ellenburger Structure – There is approximately 5000’ of structural relief on this horizon. (1080 points) Note: We had some seismic data to utilize that added some detail to the maps derived from strictly the well control. Notice the fault indicators (tight contours) that run east – west along the Electra Arch!

  13. 3-D Image of Coleman Junction Structure

Coleman Junction 3-D – This image is looking from the Electra area (red area on east) toward the SW into the Knox-Baylor basin. Notice the east - west trend along the north face of the Electra Arch.

  14. 3-D Image of Canyon Structure

Canyon 3-D – This image is looking from the Electra area toward the SW into the Knox-Baylor basin. The Electra & South Vernon oilfields are on prominent structures along the north face of the Electra Arch. The Rock-Crossing & Grayback oilfields also stand out structurally just south of the main Electra Arch features.

  15. 3-D Image of Caddo Structure

Caddo 3-D – This image is looking from the Electra area toward the SW into the Knox-Baylor basin.
The Hardeman Basin, north of the Electra Arch, has remained a site for subsidence during most of the Pennsylvanian time period. The Knox-Baylor Basin to the south becomes a site for more marine sediment.

  16. 3-D Image of Ellenburger Structure

Ellenburger 3-D – This image is looking from the Electra area toward the SW into the Knox-Baylor basin. Several productive trends and features appear to be very subtle when compared to the overall structural picture of the area. These subtle features have proven to be productive in several cases.

  17. Permian Age Production - Above the Coleman Junction

Permian Age – These are localized zones that have completions above the Coleman Junction – These productive shaley sands range in depth from 200’, 300’, 500’, & 600’.

  18. Upper Cisco Production - 800 ft to 1200 ft

Upper Cisco – This includes the 850’, 950’, 1000’, 1050’, 1100’ & 1200’ trends. These fall between the base of the Coleman Junction and the water sands just below in the 1200’ & 1300’ intervals.

  19. Middle Cisco Production - 1330 ft to 1750 ft sand

Middle Cisco – 1330’ is the shallowest production and is producing at South Vernon, the 1450’, 1500’, 1550’, 1600’, 1700’ & 1750’ sands all produce locally. The 1750’ productive horizon is limey on top and produces on several Electra area structures.

  20. Lower Middle Cisco Sands Production - (Dyson & Gunsight Sand)

Lower Middle Cisco – This interval includes the 1800’ sand, the Megargel & Gunsight Limes and the Gunsight sand around Electra, as well as the Dyson sand in the Rock Crossing & Grayback area. Note: This is the interval with the most completions and that has been drilled on a 300’ spacing pattern.

  21. Lower Cisco Production - Milham and Sloan Sands

Lower Cisco – The 2100’ sand is productive off the major structures, the 2 or 3 Milham sands are productive within about 150’ from each other. Sloan sands are productive north of Arch.

  22. Electra Area - Permian Age Production

Electra Area – Permian oil fields. Note the location of Electra and the enlarged scale.
We will have several of this same area shown to highlight Electra.

23. Electra Area - Upper Cisco Production

Electra Area – Upper Cisco – 800’, 850’, 900’, 1000’ & 1050’ sands.

24. Electra Area - Middle Cisco Production

Electra Area – 1450’, 1500’, 1600’, 1750’ sands.

25. Electra Area - 1800 Foot Sand Production

Electra Area – 1800’ sands.

26. Electra Area - Lower Middle Cisco Production - (Megargel & Gunsight)

Electra Area – Gunsight Lime & the prolific Gunsight sands.

27. Electra Area - Lower Cisco Production

Electra Area – Lower Cisco Reservoirs – 2100’ sand, Noble & Milham sand and lime formations.

28. Canyon Production - Landreth Lime

Canyon – Landreth Lime – This horizon is productive at Rock-Crossing, Grayback, South Vernon and Electra. Several Palo Pinto completions are on subtle features that had been drilled through for years without notice. The reef and sands within this interval may produce on subtle structures as we step down into the Hardeman basin side of the Electra Arch.

29. Strawn & Atoka Production - Lido, KMA & Caddo

Strawn – Local names include the Lido, Landreth, KMA, & Caddo Limes. The Atoka or Bend interval has several productive areas completed in a conglomerate formation. This interval contains the most heavily drilled formation within the "deeper" horizons.

30. Mississippian Production

Mississippian Limestone – There is currently very little "proved" production on the Waggoner Ranch from this horizon. The Mississippian is a common exploration target both north and south of the Waggoner Ranch.

31. Ellenburger Production (Dolomites?)

Ellenburger Dolomites – Times \ Rainwater, Rock-Crossing \ Grayback, Electra & TT Ellenburger fields are several of the deeper fields producing from the Ordovician formations along the Electra Arch. Note: That the interval is productive in different structural positions across the area.

32. "Shallow" Oil Fields {above Canyon Lime}

"Shallow" Production Map – Map show all production from above the top of the Canyon.

33. "Deeper" Oil Fields {Canyon or below}

"Deeper" Production – This map shows the productive areas for any formation completed below the top of the Canyon formation.

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